Wilde

Wilde Rechtschreibung

Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde war ein irischer Schriftsteller, der sich nach Schulzeit und Studium in Dublin und Oxford in London niederließ. Als Lyriker, Romanautor, Dramatiker und Kritiker wurde er zu einem der bekanntesten und. Wilde steht für: Wilde (Familienname) – zu Namensträgern siehe dort. Wilde steht als Stereotyp für folgende Menschengruppen: Barbaren, siehe Barbar; Heiden. Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (* Oktober in Dublin; † November in Paris) war ein irischer Schriftsteller, der sich nach Schulzeit und. Many translated example sentences containing "wilde" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Kloaken- Beuteltiere Insektentiere esser Herrentiere Zahnarme Wilde Tiere Nagetiere, Hasen Als „wilde Tiere" bezeichnet man alle Tiere, die der Mensch nicht.

Wilde

Das. wilde. Museum. und. der. Museumsboom. DAS. WILDE In Anlehnung an Claude Lévi-Strauss Theorie des wilden Denkens habe ich die wilden Museen. Wilde. –. Eine. psychoanalytische. Betrachtung.»Um meine Jugend zurückzugewinnen, würde ich jegliche Unbill auf mich nehmen – außer Gymnastik treiben. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Wilde“ in Deutsch-Englisch von Reverso Context: wilde Tiere, Oscar Wilde, Wilde Jagd.

Mahaffy , who inspired his interest in Greek literature. The University Philosophical Society also provided an education, as members discussed intellectual and artistic subjects such as Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Algernon Charles Swinburne weekly.

He presented a paper titled "Aesthetic Morality". At Magdalen, he read Greats from to , and from there he applied to join the Oxford Union , but failed to be elected.

Catholicism deeply appealed to him, especially its rich liturgy, and he discussed converting to it with clergy several times.

He became more serious in , when he met the Reverend Sebastian Bowden, a priest in the Brompton Oratory who had received some high-profile converts.

Neither his father, who threatened to cut off his funds, nor Mahaffy thought much of the plan; but Wilde, the supreme individualist, balked at the last minute from pledging himself to any formal creed, and on the appointed day of his baptism, sent Father Bowden a bunch of altar lilies instead.

Wilde did retain a lifelong interest in Catholic theology and liturgy. While at Magdalen College, Wilde became particularly well known for his role in the aesthetic and decadent movements.

He wore his hair long, openly scorned "manly" sports though he occasionally boxed, [21] and he decorated his rooms with peacock feathers, lilies, sunflowers, blue china and other objets d'art.

He once remarked to friends, whom he entertained lavishly, "I find it harder and harder every day to live up to my blue china.

This attitude resulted in his being rusticated for one term, after he had returned late to a college term from a trip to Greece with Mahaffy.

Wilde did not meet Walter Pater until his third year, but had been enthralled by his Studies in the History of the Renaissance , published during Wilde's final year in Trinity.

Pater gave Wilde his sense of almost flippant devotion to art, though he gained a purpose for it through the lectures and writings of critic John Ruskin.

Ruskin admired beauty, but believed it must be allied with, and applied to, moral good. When Wilde eagerly attended Ruskin's lecture series The Aesthetic and Mathematic Schools of Art in Florence , he learned about aesthetics as the non-mathematical elements of painting.

Despite being given to neither early rising nor manual labour, Wilde volunteered for Ruskin's project to convert a swampy country lane into a smart road neatly edged with flowers.

Wilde won the Newdigate Prize for his poem " Ravenna ", which reflected on his visit there the year before, and he duly read it at Encaenia.

After graduation from Oxford, Wilde returned to Dublin, where he met again Florence Balcombe , a childhood sweetheart.

She became engaged to Bram Stoker and they married in Unsure of his next step, Wilde wrote to various acquaintances enquiring about Classics positions at Oxford or Cambridge.

With the last of his inheritance from the sale of his father's houses, he set himself up as a bachelor in London.

He had been publishing lyrics and poems in magazines since entering Trinity College, especially in Kottabos and the Dublin University Magazine.

In mid, at 27 years old, he published Poems , which collected, revised and expanded his poems. The book was generally well received, and sold out its first print run of copies.

Punch was less enthusiastic, saying "The poet is Wilde, but his poetry's tame". By a tight vote, the Oxford Union condemned the book for alleged plagiarism.

The librarian, who had requested the book for the library, returned the presentation copy to Wilde with a note of apology.

The book had further printings in It was bound in a rich, enamel parchment cover embossed with gilt blossom and printed on hand-made Dutch paper; over the next few years, Wilde presented many copies to the dignitaries and writers who received him during his lecture tours.

Aestheticism was sufficiently in vogue to be caricatured by Gilbert and Sullivan in Patience Richard D'Oyly Carte , an English impresario, invited Wilde to make a lecture tour of North America, simultaneously priming the pump for the US tour of Patience and selling this most charming aesthete to the American public.

Wilde journeyed on the SS Arizona , arriving 2 January , and disembarking the following day. When asked to explain reports that he had paraded down Piccadilly in London carrying a lily, long hair flowing, Wilde replied, "It's not whether I did it or not that's important, but whether people believed I did it".

Wilde and aestheticism were both mercilessly caricatured and criticised in the press; the Springfield Republican , for instance, commented on Wilde's behaviour during his visit to Boston to lecture on aestheticism, suggesting that Wilde's conduct was more a bid for notoriety rather than devotion to beauty and the aesthetic.

Higginson , a cleric and abolitionist, wrote in "Unmanly Manhood" of his general concern that Wilde, "whose only distinction is that he has written a thin volume of very mediocre verse", would improperly influence the behaviour of men and women.

The magazine didn't let its reputation for quality impede its expression of what are now considered odious ethnic and racial ideologies.

The drawing stimulated other American maligners and, in England, had a full-page reprint in the Lady's Pictorial.

When the National Republican discussed Wilde, it was to explain 'a few items as to the animal's pedigree.

His earnings, plus expected income from The Duchess of Padua , allowed him to move to Paris between February and mid-May While there he met Robert Sherard , whom he entertained constantly.

He reportedly entertained the other passengers with " Ave Imperatrix! She happened to be visiting Dublin in , when Wilde was lecturing at the Gaiety Theatre.

They had preached to others for so long on the subject of design that people expected their home to set new standards.

The couple had two sons together, Cyril and Vyvyan Wilde became the sole literary signatory of George Bernard Shaw 's petition for a pardon of the anarchists arrested and later executed after the Haymarket massacre in Chicago in Robert Ross had read Wilde's poems before they met at Oxford in He seemed unrestrained by the Victorian prohibition against homosexuality, and became estranged from his family.

By Richard Ellmann 's account, he was a precocious seventeen-year-old who "so young and yet so knowing, was determined to seduce Wilde".

Criticism over artistic matters in The Pall Mall Gazette provoked a letter in self-defence, and soon Wilde was a contributor to that and other journals during — He enjoyed reviewing and journalism; the form suited his style.

He could organise and share his views on art, literature and life, yet in a format less tedious than lecturing.

Buoyed up, his reviews were largely chatty and positive. When Charles Stewart Parnell was falsely accused of inciting murder , Wilde wrote a series of astute columns defending him in the Daily Chronicle.

His flair, having previously been put mainly into socialising, suited journalism and rapidly attracted notice. With his youth nearly over, and a family to support, in mid Wilde became the editor of The Lady's World magazine, his name prominently appearing on the cover.

Two pieces of fiction were usually included, one to be read to children, the other for the ladies themselves.

Wilde worked hard to solicit good contributions from his wide artistic acquaintance, including those of Lady Wilde and his wife Constance, while his own "Literary and Other Notes" were themselves popular and amusing.

The initial vigour and excitement which he brought to the job began to fade as administration, commuting and office life became tedious.

If Wilde's period at the helm of the magazine was a mixed success from an organizational point of view, it played a pivotal role in his development as a writer and facilitated his ascent to fame.

Whilst Wilde the journalist supplied articles under the guidance of his editors, Wilde the editor was forced to learn to manipulate the literary marketplace on his own terms.

During the late s, Wilde was a close friend of the artist James McNeill Whistler and they dined together on many occasions.

At one of these dinners, Whistler said a bon mot that Wilde found particularly witty, Wilde exclaimed that he wished that he had said it, and Whistler retorted "You will, Oscar, you will".

The article alleged that Wilde had a habit of passing off other people's witticisms as his own—especially Whistler's. Wilde considered Vivian's article to be a scurrilous betrayal, and it directly caused the broken friendship between Wilde and Whistler.

Wilde published The Happy Prince and Other Tales in , and had been regularly writing fairy stories for magazines.

The only evidence for this is two supposed puns within the sonnets themselves. The anonymous narrator is at first sceptical, then believing, finally flirtatious with the reader: he concludes that "there is really a great deal to be said of the Willie Hughes theory of Shakespeare's sonnets.

The story thus is an early masterpiece of Wilde's combining many elements that interested him: conversation, literature and the idea that to shed oneself of an idea one must first convince another of its truth.

Though containing nothing but "special pleading", it would not, he says "be possible to build an airier castle in Spain than this of the imaginary William Hughes" we continue listening nonetheless to be charmed by the telling.

Wilde, having tired of journalism, had been busy setting out his aesthetic ideas more fully in a series of longer prose pieces which were published in the major literary-intellectual journals of the day.

Having always excelled as a wit and raconteur, he often composed by assembling phrases, bons mots and witticisms into a longer, cohesive work.

Wilde was concerned about the effect of moralising on art; he believed in art's redemptive, developmental powers: "Art is individualism, and individualism is a disturbing and disintegrating force.

There lies its immense value. For what it seeks is to disturb monotony of type, slavery of custom, tyranny of habit, and the reduction of man to the level of a machine.

At the same time, he stressed that the government most amenable to artists was no government at all. Wilde envisioned a society where mechanisation has freed human effort from the burden of necessity, effort which can instead be expended on artistic creation.

George Orwell summarised, "In effect, the world will be populated by artists, each striving after perfection in the way that seems best to him.

This point of view did not align him with the Fabians , intellectual socialists who advocated using state apparatus to change social conditions, nor did it endear him to the monied classes whom he had previously entertained.

Wilde considered including this pamphlet and The Portrait of Mr. The first version of The Picture of Dorian Gray was published as the lead story in the July edition of Lippincott's Monthly Magazine , along with five others.

When Gray, who has a "face like ivory and rose leaves", sees his finished portrait, he breaks down.

Distraught that his beauty will fade while the portrait stays beautiful, he inadvertently makes a Faustian bargain in which only the painted image grows old while he stays beautiful and young.

For Wilde, the purpose of art would be to guide life as if beauty alone were its object. As Gray's portrait allows him to escape the corporeal ravages of his hedonism, Wilde sought to juxtapose the beauty he saw in art with daily life.

Reviewers immediately criticised the novel's decadence and homosexual allusions; The Daily Chronicle for example, called it "unclean", "poisonous", and "heavy with the mephitic odours of moral and spiritual putrefaction".

That is all. Contemporary reviewers and modern critics have postulated numerous possible sources of the story, a search Jershua McCormack argues is futile because Wilde "has tapped a root of Western folklore so deep and ubiquitous that the story has escaped its origins and returned to the oral tradition.

The census records the Wildes' residence at 16 Tite Street, [] where he lived with his wife Constance and two sons. Wilde though, not content with being better known than ever in London, returned to Paris in October , this time as a respected writer.

He had continued his interest in the theatre and now, after finding his voice in prose, his thoughts turned again to the dramatic form as the biblical iconography of Salome filled his mind.

A tragedy, it tells the story of Salome, the stepdaughter of the tetrarch Herod Antipas , who, to her stepfather's dismay but mother 's delight, requests the head of Jokanaan John the Baptist on a silver platter as a reward for dancing the Dance of the Seven Veils.

When Wilde returned to London just before Christmas the Paris Echo referred to him as "le great event" of the season. Wilde, who had first set out to irritate Victorian society with his dress and talking points, then outrage it with Dorian Gray , his novel of vice hidden beneath art, finally found a way to critique society on its own terms.

Lady Windermere's Fan was first performed on 20 February at St James's Theatre, packed with the cream of society.

On the surface a witty comedy, there is subtle subversion underneath: "it concludes with collusive concealment rather than collective disclosure".

The play was enormously popular, touring the country for months, but largely trashed by conservative critics. Peter Raby said these essentially English plays were well-pitched, "Wilde, with one eye on the dramatic genius of Ibsen, and the other on the commercial competition in London's West End, targeted his audience with adroit precision".

An intimate friendship sprang up between Wilde and Douglas and by Wilde was infatuated with Douglas and they consorted together regularly in a tempestuous affair.

If Wilde was relatively indiscreet, even flamboyant, in the way he acted, Douglas was reckless in public.

Douglas soon initiated Wilde into the Victorian underground of gay prostitution and Wilde was introduced to a series of young working-class male prostitutes from onwards by Alfred Taylor.

These infrequent rendezvous usually took the same form: Wilde would meet the boy, offer him gifts, dine him privately and then take him to a hotel room.

Unlike Wilde's idealised relations with Ross, John Gray , and Douglas, all of whom remained part of his aesthetic circle, these consorts were uneducated and knew nothing of literature.

Soon his public and private lives had become sharply divided; in De Profundis he wrote to Douglas that "It was like feasting with panthers; the danger was half the excitement I did not know that when they were to strike at me it was to be at another's piping and at another's pay.

Douglas and some Oxford friends founded a journal, The Chameleon , to which Wilde "sent a page of paradoxes originally destined for the Saturday Review ".

Lord Alfred's father, the Marquess of Queensberry , was known for his outspoken atheism, brutish manner and creation of the modern rules of boxing.

In June , he called on Wilde at 16 Tite Street, without an appointment, and clarified his stance: "I do not say that you are it, but you look it, and pose at it, which is just as bad.

And if I catch you and my son again in any public restaurant I will thrash you" to which Wilde responded: "I don't know what the Queensberry rules are, but the Oscar Wilde rule is to shoot on sight".

He did not wish to bear Queensberry's insults, but he knew to confront him could lead to disaster were his liaisons disclosed publicly.

Wilde's final play again returns to the theme of switched identities: the play's two protagonists engage in "bunburying" the maintenance of alternative personas in the town and country which allows them to escape Victorian social mores.

Mostly set in drawing rooms and almost completely lacking in action or violence, Earnest lacks the self-conscious decadence found in The Picture of Dorian Gray and Salome.

The play, now considered Wilde's masterpiece , was rapidly written in Wilde's artistic maturity in late Both author and producer assiduously revised, prepared and rehearsed every line, scene and setting in the months before the premiere, creating a carefully constructed representation of late-Victorian society, yet simultaneously mocking it.

Premieres at St James's seemed like "brilliant parties", and the opening of The Importance of Being Earnest was no exception.

Allan Aynesworth who played Algernon recalled to Hesketh Pearson , "In my fifty-three years of acting, I never remember a greater triumph than [that] first night.

Wilde's professional success was mirrored by an escalation in his feud with Queensberry. Queensberry had planned to insult Wilde publicly by throwing a bouquet of rotting vegetables onto the stage; Wilde was tipped off and had Queensberry barred from entering the theatre.

On 18 February , the Marquess left his calling card at Wilde's club, the Albemarle , inscribed: "For Oscar Wilde, posing somdomite" [ sic ].

Queensberry was arrested for criminal libel ; a charge carrying a possible sentence of up to two years in prison. Under the Libel Act , Queensberry could avoid conviction for libel only by demonstrating that his accusation was in fact true, and furthermore that there was some "public benefit" to having made the accusation openly.

The scene was witnessed by George Bernard Shaw who recalled it to Arthur Ransome a day or so before Ransome's trial for libelling Douglas in To Ransome it confirmed what he had said in his book on Wilde; that Douglas's rivalry for Wilde with Robbie Ross and his arguments with his father had resulted in Wilde's public disaster; as Wilde wrote in De Profundis.

Douglas lost his case. A team of private detectives had directed Queensberry's lawyers, led by Edward Carson QC , to the world of the Victorian underground.

Wilde's association with blackmailers and male prostitutes, cross-dressers and homosexual brothels was recorded, and various persons involved were interviewed, some being coerced to appear as witnesses since they too were accomplices to the crimes of which Wilde was accused.

The trial opened on 3 April before Justice Richard Henn Collins amid scenes of near hysteria both in the press and the public galleries.

The extent of the evidence massed against Wilde forced him to declare meekly, "I am the prosecutor in this case".

He characterised the first as a "prose sonnet" and admitted that the "poetical language" might seem strange to the court but claimed its intent was innocent.

He claimed to regard the letters as works of art rather than something of which to be ashamed. Carson, a fellow Dubliner who had attended Trinity College, Dublin at the same time as Wilde, cross-examined Wilde on how he perceived the moral content of his works.

Wilde replied with characteristic wit and flippancy, claiming that works of art are not capable of being moral or immoral but only well or poorly made, and that only "brutes and illiterates", whose views on art "are incalculably stupid", would make such judgements about art.

Carson, a leading barrister, diverged from the normal practice of asking closed questions. Carson pressed Wilde on each topic from every angle, squeezing out nuances of meaning from Wilde's answers, removing them from their aesthetic context and portraying Wilde as evasive and decadent.

While Wilde won the most laughs from the court, Carson scored the most legal points. Playing on this, he returned to the topic throughout his cross-examination.

Carson then moved to the factual evidence and questioned Wilde about his friendships with younger, lower-class men. Wilde admitted being on a first-name basis and lavishing gifts upon them, but insisted that nothing untoward had occurred and that the men were merely good friends of his.

Carson repeatedly pointed out the unusual nature of these relationships and insinuated that the men were prostitutes.

Wilde replied that he did not believe in social barriers, and simply enjoyed the society of young men. Then Carson asked Wilde directly whether he had ever kissed a certain servant boy, Wilde responded, "Oh, dear no.

Wilde hesitated, then for the first time became flustered: "You sting me and insult me and try to unnerve me; and at times one says things flippantly when one ought to speak more seriously.

In his opening speech for the defence, Carson announced that he had located several male prostitutes who were to testify that they had had sex with Wilde.

On the advice of his lawyers, Wilde dropped the prosecution. Queensberry was found not guilty, as the court declared that his accusation that Wilde was "posing as a Somdomite [ sic ]" was justified, "true in substance and in fact".

After Wilde left the court, a warrant for his arrest was applied for on charges of sodomy and gross indecency. Robbie Ross found Wilde at the Cadogan Hotel, [] Pont Street , Knightsbridge , with Reginald Turner ; both men advised Wilde to go at once to Dover and try to get a boat to France; his mother advised him to stay and fight.

Wilde, lapsing into inaction, could only say, "The train has gone. It's too late. Events moved quickly and his prosecution opened on 26 April , before Mr Justice Charles.

Wilde pleaded not guilty. He had already begged Douglas to leave London for Paris, but Douglas complained bitterly, even wanting to give evidence; he was pressed to go and soon fled to the Hotel du Monde.

Fearing persecution, Ross and many others also left the United Kingdom during this time. Under cross examination Wilde was at first hesitant, then spoke eloquently:.

Charles Gill prosecuting : What is " the love that dare not speak its name "? Wilde: "The love that dare not speak its name" in this century is such a great affection of an elder for a younger man as there was between David and Jonathan, such as Plato made the very basis of his philosophy, and such as you find in the sonnets of Michelangelo and Shakespeare.

It is that deep spiritual affection that is as pure as it is perfect. It dictates and pervades great works of art, like those of Shakespeare and Michelangelo, and those two letters of mine, such as they are.

It is in this century misunderstood, so much misunderstood that it may be described as "the love that dare not speak its name", and on that account of it I am placed where I am now.

It is beautiful, it is fine, it is the noblest form of affection. There is nothing unnatural about it.

It is intellectual, and it repeatedly exists between an older and a younger man, when the older man has intellect, and the younger man has all the joy, hope and glamour of life before him.

That it should be so, the world does not understand. The world mocks at it, and sometimes puts one in the pillory for it.

This response was counter-productive in a legal sense as it only served to reinforce the charges of homosexual behaviour.

The trial ended with the jury unable to reach a verdict. Wilde's counsel, Sir Edward Clarke, was finally able to get a magistrate to allow Wilde and his friends to post bail.

The final trial was presided over by Mr Justice Wills. On 25 May Wilde and Alfred Taylor were convicted of gross indecency and sentenced to two years' hard labour.

May I say nothing, my Lord? He first entered Newgate Prison in London for processing, then was moved to Pentonville Prison , where the "hard labour" to which he had been sentenced consisted of many hours of walking a treadmill and picking oakum separating the fibres in scraps of old navy ropes , [] and where prisoners were allowed to read only the Bible and The Pilgrim's Progress.

A few months later he was moved to Wandsworth Prison in London. Inmates there also followed the regimen of "hard labour, hard fare and a hard bed", which wore harshly on Wilde's delicate health.

His right ear drum was ruptured in the fall, an injury that later contributed to his death. Richard B.

The transfer itself was the lowest point of his incarceration, as a crowd jeered and spat at him on the railway platform.

About five months after Wilde arrived at Reading Gaol, Charles Thomas Wooldridge , a trooper in the Royal Horse Guards, was brought to Reading to await his trial for murdering his wife on 29 March ; on 17 June Wooldridge was sentenced to death and returned to Reading for his execution, which took place on Tuesday, 7 July — the first hanging at Reading in 18 years.

Wilde was not, at first, even allowed paper and pen but Haldane eventually succeeded in allowing access to books and writing materials.

Between January and March Wilde wrote a 50,word letter to Douglas. He was not allowed to send it, but was permitted to take it with him when released from prison.

His own estimation of himself was: one who "stood in symbolic relations to the art and culture of my age".

The second half of the letter traces Wilde's spiritual journey of redemption and fulfilment through his prison reading.

He realised that his ordeal had filled his soul with the fruit of experience, however bitter it tasted at the time. I wanted to eat of the fruit of all the trees in the garden of the world And so, indeed, I went out, and so I lived.

My only mistake was that I confined myself so exclusively to the trees of what seemed to me the sun-lit side of the garden, and shunned the other side for its shadow and its gloom.

Wilde was released from prison on 19 May [] and sailed that evening for Dieppe, France. On his release, he gave the manuscript to Ross, who may or may not have carried out Wilde's instructions to send a copy to Douglas who later denied having received it.

The letter was partially published in as De Profundis ; its complete and correct publication first occurred in in The Letters of Oscar Wilde.

Though Wilde's health had suffered greatly from the harshness and diet of prison, he had a feeling of spiritual renewal.

He immediately wrote to the Society of Jesus requesting a six-month Catholic retreat; when the request was denied, Wilde wept.

He spent his last three years impoverished and in exile. His discussion of the dismissal of Warder Martin for giving biscuits to an anaemic child prisoner repeated the themes of the corruption and degeneration of punishment that he had earlier outlined in The Soul of Man under Socialism.

Wilde spent mid with Robert Ross in the seaside village of Berneval-le-Grand in northern France, where he wrote The Ballad of Reading Gaol , narrating the execution of Charles Thomas Wooldridge , who murdered his wife in a rage at her infidelity.

It moves from an objective story-telling to symbolic identification with the prisoners. Wilde juxtaposes the executed man and himself with the line "Yet each man kills the thing he loves".

Although Douglas had been the cause of his misfortunes, he and Wilde were reunited in August at Rouen. This meeting was disapproved of by the friends and families of both men.

Constance Wilde was already refusing to meet Wilde or allow him to see their sons, though she sent him money — three pounds a week.

During the latter part of , Wilde and Douglas lived together near Naples for a few months until they were separated by their families under the threat of cutting off all funds.

Pray do what you can" he wrote to his publisher. He wandered the boulevards alone and spent what little money he had on alcohol. Soon Wilde was sufficiently confined to his hotel to joke, on one of his final trips outside, "My wallpaper and I are fighting a duel to the death.

One of us has got to go". Please come". By 25 November Wilde had developed meningitis , then called "cerebral meningitis".

Robbie Ross arrived on 29 November, sent for a priest, and Wilde was conditionally baptised into the Catholic Church by Fr Cuthbert Dunne, a Passionist priest from Dublin, [] [] Wilde having been baptised in the Church of Ireland and having moreover a recollection of Catholic baptism as a child, a fact later attested to by the minister of the sacrament, Fr Lawrence Fox.

As the voiture rolled through the dark streets that wintry night, the sad story of Oscar Wilde was in part repeated to me Robert Ross knelt by the bedside, assisting me as best he could while I administered conditional baptism, and afterwards answering the responses while I gave Extreme Unction to the prostrate man and recited the prayers for the dying.

As the man was in a semi-comatose condition, I did not venture to administer the Holy Viaticum ; still I must add that he could be roused and was roused from this state in my presence.

When roused, he gave signs of being inwardly conscious Indeed I was fully satisfied that he understood me when told that I was about to receive him into the Catholic Church and gave him the Last Sacraments And when I repeated close to his ear the Holy Names, the Acts of Contrition , Faith, Hope and Charity, with acts of humble resignation to the Will of God, he tried all through to say the words after me.

Wilde died of meningitis on 30 November The modernist angel depicted as a relief on the tomb was originally complete with male genitalia, which were initially censored by French Authorities with a golden leaf.

The genitals have since been vandalised; their current whereabouts are unknown. In , Leon Johnson, a multimedia artist, installed a silver prosthesis to replace them.

The epitaph is a verse from The Ballad of Reading Gaol ,. And alien tears will fill for him Pity's long-broken urn, For his mourners will be outcast men, And outcasts always mourn.

In , Wilde was among an estimated 50, men who were pardoned for homosexual acts that were no longer considered offences under the Policing and Crime Act The Act is known informally as the Alan Turing law.

Wilde's life has been the subject of numerous biographies since his death. The earliest were memoirs by those who knew him: often they are personal or impressionistic accounts which can be good character sketches, but are sometimes factually unreliable.

Oscar Wilde and Myself , largely ghost-written by T. Crosland , vindictively reacted to Douglas's discovery that De Profundis was addressed to him and defensively tried to distance him from Wilde's scandalous reputation.

Both authors later regretted their work. Of Wilde's other close friends, Robert Sherard ; Robert Ross , his literary executor; and Charles Ricketts variously published biographies, reminiscences or correspondence.

Oscar Wilde, a critical study by Arthur Ransome was published in In April Douglas lost the libel action after a reading of De Profundis refuted his claims.

Often speculative in nature, it was widely criticised for its pure conjecture and lack of scholarly rigour.

Robert Ross, 23 December []. The book incorporates rediscovered letters and other documents and is the most extensively researched biography of Wilde to appear since Parisian literati, also produced several biographies and monographs on him.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 2 July This article is about the 19th-century author.

For other uses, see Oscar Wilde disambiguation. Aesthetic movement Decadent movement. Sedan Wilde lämnat fängelset var han bosatt dels i Frankrike , dels i Italien.

Ett par trofasta vänner, Robert Ross och R. Stenen utformades som en sfinx-skulptur av Jacob Epstein.

Senare uppdagades att donatorn var Helen Kennard Carew. Huvudartikel: Oscar Wildes grav. Dorian Grays porträtt.

Namnrymder Artikel Diskussion. Visningar Läs Redigera Redigera wikitext Visa historik. Commons Wikiquote Wikisource.

Sidor som länkar hit Relaterade ändringar Specialsidor Permanent länk Sidinformation Wikidata-objekt Använd denna sida som referens.

Stenen utformades som en sfinx-skulptur av Jacob Epstein. Senare uppdagades att donatorn var Helen Kennard Carew. Huvudartikel: Oscar Wildes grav.

Dorian Grays porträtt. Namnrymder Artikel Diskussion. Visningar Läs Redigera Redigera wikitext Visa historik.

Commons Wikiquote Wikisource. Sidor som länkar hit Relaterade ändringar Specialsidor Permanent länk Sidinformation Wikidata-objekt Använd denna sida som referens.

Oscar Wilde. Författare , poet. The opportunity to construct aesthetic details precisely, and combine them with larger social themes, drew Wilde to write drama.

He wrote Salome in French while in Paris but it was refused a licence for England due to an absolute prohibition on the portrayal of Biblical subjects on the English stage.

Unperturbed, Wilde produced four society comedies in the early s, which made him one of the most successful playwrights of late-Victorian London.

At the height of his fame and success, while The Importance of Being Earnest was still being performed in London, Wilde prosecuted the Marquess of Queensberry for criminal libel.

The libel trial unearthed evidence that caused Wilde to drop his charges and led to his own arrest and trial for gross indecency with men.

After two more trials he was convicted and sentenced to two years' hard labour , the maximum penalty, and was jailed from to During his last year in prison, he wrote De Profundis published posthumously in , a long letter which discusses his spiritual journey through his trials, forming a dark counterpoint to his earlier philosophy of pleasure.

On his release, he left immediately for France, never to return to Ireland or Britain. There he wrote his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol , a long poem commemorating the harsh rhythms of prison life.

Oscar was two years younger than his brother, William Willie Wilde. Jane Wilde was a niece by marriage of the novelist, playwright and clergyman Charles Maturin — , who may have influenced her own literary career.

She had distant Italian ancestry, [1] and under the pseudonym "Speranza" the Italian word for 'hope' , she wrote poetry for the revolutionary Young Irelanders in ; she was a lifelong Irish nationalist.

William Wilde was Ireland's leading oto - ophthalmologic ear and eye surgeon and was knighted in for his services as medical adviser and assistant commissioner to the censuses of Ireland.

A renowned philanthropist, his dispensary for the care of the city's poor at the rear of Trinity College, Dublin , was the forerunner of the Dublin Eye and Ear Hospital, now located at Adelaide Road.

On his mother's side, Wilde's ancestors included a bricklayer from County Durham , who emigrated to Ireland sometime in the s.

Wilde was baptised as an infant in St. When the church was closed, the records were moved to the nearby St. Ann's Church, Dawson Street.

She asked Father Fox in this period to baptise her sons. After a few weeks I baptized these two children, Lady Wilde herself being present on the occasion.

In addition to his children with his wife, Sir William Wilde was the father of three children born out of wedlock before his marriage: Henry Wilson, born in to one woman, and Emily and Mary Wilde, born in and , respectively, to a second woman.

Sir William acknowledged paternity of his illegitimate or "natural" children and provided for their education, arranging for them to be reared by his relatives rather than with his legitimate children in his family household with his wife.

In , the family moved to No. The Wildes' new home was larger. With both his parents' success and delight in social life, the house soon became the site of a "unique medical and cultural milieu".

Until he was nine, Oscar Wilde was educated at home, where a French nursemaid and a German governess taught him their languages. Isola died at age nine of meningitis.

Wilde's poem " Requiescat " is written to her memory. Wilde left Portora with a royal scholarship to read classics at Trinity College, Dublin , from to , [14] sharing rooms with his older brother Willie Wilde.

Trinity, one of the leading classical schools, placed him with scholars such as R. Mahaffy , who inspired his interest in Greek literature.

The University Philosophical Society also provided an education, as members discussed intellectual and artistic subjects such as Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Algernon Charles Swinburne weekly.

He presented a paper titled "Aesthetic Morality". At Magdalen, he read Greats from to , and from there he applied to join the Oxford Union , but failed to be elected.

Catholicism deeply appealed to him, especially its rich liturgy, and he discussed converting to it with clergy several times.

He became more serious in , when he met the Reverend Sebastian Bowden, a priest in the Brompton Oratory who had received some high-profile converts.

Neither his father, who threatened to cut off his funds, nor Mahaffy thought much of the plan; but Wilde, the supreme individualist, balked at the last minute from pledging himself to any formal creed, and on the appointed day of his baptism, sent Father Bowden a bunch of altar lilies instead.

Wilde did retain a lifelong interest in Catholic theology and liturgy. While at Magdalen College, Wilde became particularly well known for his role in the aesthetic and decadent movements.

He wore his hair long, openly scorned "manly" sports though he occasionally boxed, [21] and he decorated his rooms with peacock feathers, lilies, sunflowers, blue china and other objets d'art.

He once remarked to friends, whom he entertained lavishly, "I find it harder and harder every day to live up to my blue china.

This attitude resulted in his being rusticated for one term, after he had returned late to a college term from a trip to Greece with Mahaffy.

Wilde did not meet Walter Pater until his third year, but had been enthralled by his Studies in the History of the Renaissance , published during Wilde's final year in Trinity.

Pater gave Wilde his sense of almost flippant devotion to art, though he gained a purpose for it through the lectures and writings of critic John Ruskin.

Ruskin admired beauty, but believed it must be allied with, and applied to, moral good. When Wilde eagerly attended Ruskin's lecture series The Aesthetic and Mathematic Schools of Art in Florence , he learned about aesthetics as the non-mathematical elements of painting.

Despite being given to neither early rising nor manual labour, Wilde volunteered for Ruskin's project to convert a swampy country lane into a smart road neatly edged with flowers.

Wilde won the Newdigate Prize for his poem " Ravenna ", which reflected on his visit there the year before, and he duly read it at Encaenia.

After graduation from Oxford, Wilde returned to Dublin, where he met again Florence Balcombe , a childhood sweetheart.

She became engaged to Bram Stoker and they married in Unsure of his next step, Wilde wrote to various acquaintances enquiring about Classics positions at Oxford or Cambridge.

With the last of his inheritance from the sale of his father's houses, he set himself up as a bachelor in London. He had been publishing lyrics and poems in magazines since entering Trinity College, especially in Kottabos and the Dublin University Magazine.

In mid, at 27 years old, he published Poems , which collected, revised and expanded his poems.

The book was generally well received, and sold out its first print run of copies. Punch was less enthusiastic, saying "The poet is Wilde, but his poetry's tame".

By a tight vote, the Oxford Union condemned the book for alleged plagiarism. The librarian, who had requested the book for the library, returned the presentation copy to Wilde with a note of apology.

The book had further printings in It was bound in a rich, enamel parchment cover embossed with gilt blossom and printed on hand-made Dutch paper; over the next few years, Wilde presented many copies to the dignitaries and writers who received him during his lecture tours.

Aestheticism was sufficiently in vogue to be caricatured by Gilbert and Sullivan in Patience Richard D'Oyly Carte , an English impresario, invited Wilde to make a lecture tour of North America, simultaneously priming the pump for the US tour of Patience and selling this most charming aesthete to the American public.

Wilde journeyed on the SS Arizona , arriving 2 January , and disembarking the following day. When asked to explain reports that he had paraded down Piccadilly in London carrying a lily, long hair flowing, Wilde replied, "It's not whether I did it or not that's important, but whether people believed I did it".

Wilde and aestheticism were both mercilessly caricatured and criticised in the press; the Springfield Republican , for instance, commented on Wilde's behaviour during his visit to Boston to lecture on aestheticism, suggesting that Wilde's conduct was more a bid for notoriety rather than devotion to beauty and the aesthetic.

Higginson , a cleric and abolitionist, wrote in "Unmanly Manhood" of his general concern that Wilde, "whose only distinction is that he has written a thin volume of very mediocre verse", would improperly influence the behaviour of men and women.

The magazine didn't let its reputation for quality impede its expression of what are now considered odious ethnic and racial ideologies.

The drawing stimulated other American maligners and, in England, had a full-page reprint in the Lady's Pictorial. When the National Republican discussed Wilde, it was to explain 'a few items as to the animal's pedigree.

His earnings, plus expected income from The Duchess of Padua , allowed him to move to Paris between February and mid-May While there he met Robert Sherard , whom he entertained constantly.

He reportedly entertained the other passengers with " Ave Imperatrix! She happened to be visiting Dublin in , when Wilde was lecturing at the Gaiety Theatre.

They had preached to others for so long on the subject of design that people expected their home to set new standards.

The couple had two sons together, Cyril and Vyvyan Wilde became the sole literary signatory of George Bernard Shaw 's petition for a pardon of the anarchists arrested and later executed after the Haymarket massacre in Chicago in Robert Ross had read Wilde's poems before they met at Oxford in He seemed unrestrained by the Victorian prohibition against homosexuality, and became estranged from his family.

By Richard Ellmann 's account, he was a precocious seventeen-year-old who "so young and yet so knowing, was determined to seduce Wilde".

Criticism over artistic matters in The Pall Mall Gazette provoked a letter in self-defence, and soon Wilde was a contributor to that and other journals during — He enjoyed reviewing and journalism; the form suited his style.

He could organise and share his views on art, literature and life, yet in a format less tedious than lecturing. Buoyed up, his reviews were largely chatty and positive.

When Charles Stewart Parnell was falsely accused of inciting murder , Wilde wrote a series of astute columns defending him in the Daily Chronicle.

His flair, having previously been put mainly into socialising, suited journalism and rapidly attracted notice.

With his youth nearly over, and a family to support, in mid Wilde became the editor of The Lady's World magazine, his name prominently appearing on the cover.

Two pieces of fiction were usually included, one to be read to children, the other for the ladies themselves.

Wilde worked hard to solicit good contributions from his wide artistic acquaintance, including those of Lady Wilde and his wife Constance, while his own "Literary and Other Notes" were themselves popular and amusing.

The initial vigour and excitement which he brought to the job began to fade as administration, commuting and office life became tedious.

If Wilde's period at the helm of the magazine was a mixed success from an organizational point of view, it played a pivotal role in his development as a writer and facilitated his ascent to fame.

Whilst Wilde the journalist supplied articles under the guidance of his editors, Wilde the editor was forced to learn to manipulate the literary marketplace on his own terms.

During the late s, Wilde was a close friend of the artist James McNeill Whistler and they dined together on many occasions.

At one of these dinners, Whistler said a bon mot that Wilde found particularly witty, Wilde exclaimed that he wished that he had said it, and Whistler retorted "You will, Oscar, you will".

The article alleged that Wilde had a habit of passing off other people's witticisms as his own—especially Whistler's.

Wilde considered Vivian's article to be a scurrilous betrayal, and it directly caused the broken friendship between Wilde and Whistler. Wilde published The Happy Prince and Other Tales in , and had been regularly writing fairy stories for magazines.

The only evidence for this is two supposed puns within the sonnets themselves. The anonymous narrator is at first sceptical, then believing, finally flirtatious with the reader: he concludes that "there is really a great deal to be said of the Willie Hughes theory of Shakespeare's sonnets.

The story thus is an early masterpiece of Wilde's combining many elements that interested him: conversation, literature and the idea that to shed oneself of an idea one must first convince another of its truth.

Though containing nothing but "special pleading", it would not, he says "be possible to build an airier castle in Spain than this of the imaginary William Hughes" we continue listening nonetheless to be charmed by the telling.

Wilde, having tired of journalism, had been busy setting out his aesthetic ideas more fully in a series of longer prose pieces which were published in the major literary-intellectual journals of the day.

Having always excelled as a wit and raconteur, he often composed by assembling phrases, bons mots and witticisms into a longer, cohesive work.

Wilde was concerned about the effect of moralising on art; he believed in art's redemptive, developmental powers: "Art is individualism, and individualism is a disturbing and disintegrating force.

There lies its immense value. For what it seeks is to disturb monotony of type, slavery of custom, tyranny of habit, and the reduction of man to the level of a machine.

At the same time, he stressed that the government most amenable to artists was no government at all. Wilde envisioned a society where mechanisation has freed human effort from the burden of necessity, effort which can instead be expended on artistic creation.

George Orwell summarised, "In effect, the world will be populated by artists, each striving after perfection in the way that seems best to him.

This point of view did not align him with the Fabians , intellectual socialists who advocated using state apparatus to change social conditions, nor did it endear him to the monied classes whom he had previously entertained.

Wilde considered including this pamphlet and The Portrait of Mr. The first version of The Picture of Dorian Gray was published as the lead story in the July edition of Lippincott's Monthly Magazine , along with five others.

When Gray, who has a "face like ivory and rose leaves", sees his finished portrait, he breaks down. Distraught that his beauty will fade while the portrait stays beautiful, he inadvertently makes a Faustian bargain in which only the painted image grows old while he stays beautiful and young.

For Wilde, the purpose of art would be to guide life as if beauty alone were its object. As Gray's portrait allows him to escape the corporeal ravages of his hedonism, Wilde sought to juxtapose the beauty he saw in art with daily life.

Reviewers immediately criticised the novel's decadence and homosexual allusions; The Daily Chronicle for example, called it "unclean", "poisonous", and "heavy with the mephitic odours of moral and spiritual putrefaction".

That is all. Contemporary reviewers and modern critics have postulated numerous possible sources of the story, a search Jershua McCormack argues is futile because Wilde "has tapped a root of Western folklore so deep and ubiquitous that the story has escaped its origins and returned to the oral tradition.

The census records the Wildes' residence at 16 Tite Street, [] where he lived with his wife Constance and two sons. Wilde though, not content with being better known than ever in London, returned to Paris in October , this time as a respected writer.

He had continued his interest in the theatre and now, after finding his voice in prose, his thoughts turned again to the dramatic form as the biblical iconography of Salome filled his mind.

A tragedy, it tells the story of Salome, the stepdaughter of the tetrarch Herod Antipas , who, to her stepfather's dismay but mother 's delight, requests the head of Jokanaan John the Baptist on a silver platter as a reward for dancing the Dance of the Seven Veils.

When Wilde returned to London just before Christmas the Paris Echo referred to him as "le great event" of the season. Wilde, who had first set out to irritate Victorian society with his dress and talking points, then outrage it with Dorian Gray , his novel of vice hidden beneath art, finally found a way to critique society on its own terms.

Lady Windermere's Fan was first performed on 20 February at St James's Theatre, packed with the cream of society. On the surface a witty comedy, there is subtle subversion underneath: "it concludes with collusive concealment rather than collective disclosure".

The play was enormously popular, touring the country for months, but largely trashed by conservative critics.

Peter Raby said these essentially English plays were well-pitched, "Wilde, with one eye on the dramatic genius of Ibsen, and the other on the commercial competition in London's West End, targeted his audience with adroit precision".

An intimate friendship sprang up between Wilde and Douglas and by Wilde was infatuated with Douglas and they consorted together regularly in a tempestuous affair.

If Wilde was relatively indiscreet, even flamboyant, in the way he acted, Douglas was reckless in public. Douglas soon initiated Wilde into the Victorian underground of gay prostitution and Wilde was introduced to a series of young working-class male prostitutes from onwards by Alfred Taylor.

These infrequent rendezvous usually took the same form: Wilde would meet the boy, offer him gifts, dine him privately and then take him to a hotel room.

Unlike Wilde's idealised relations with Ross, John Gray , and Douglas, all of whom remained part of his aesthetic circle, these consorts were uneducated and knew nothing of literature.

Soon his public and private lives had become sharply divided; in De Profundis he wrote to Douglas that "It was like feasting with panthers; the danger was half the excitement I did not know that when they were to strike at me it was to be at another's piping and at another's pay.

Douglas and some Oxford friends founded a journal, The Chameleon , to which Wilde "sent a page of paradoxes originally destined for the Saturday Review ".

Lord Alfred's father, the Marquess of Queensberry , was known for his outspoken atheism, brutish manner and creation of the modern rules of boxing.

In June , he called on Wilde at 16 Tite Street, without an appointment, and clarified his stance: "I do not say that you are it, but you look it, and pose at it, which is just as bad.

And if I catch you and my son again in any public restaurant I will thrash you" to which Wilde responded: "I don't know what the Queensberry rules are, but the Oscar Wilde rule is to shoot on sight".

He did not wish to bear Queensberry's insults, but he knew to confront him could lead to disaster were his liaisons disclosed publicly.

Wilde's final play again returns to the theme of switched identities: the play's two protagonists engage in "bunburying" the maintenance of alternative personas in the town and country which allows them to escape Victorian social mores.

Mostly set in drawing rooms and almost completely lacking in action or violence, Earnest lacks the self-conscious decadence found in The Picture of Dorian Gray and Salome.

The play, now considered Wilde's masterpiece , was rapidly written in Wilde's artistic maturity in late Both author and producer assiduously revised, prepared and rehearsed every line, scene and setting in the months before the premiere, creating a carefully constructed representation of late-Victorian society, yet simultaneously mocking it.

Premieres at St James's seemed like "brilliant parties", and the opening of The Importance of Being Earnest was no exception.

Allan Aynesworth who played Algernon recalled to Hesketh Pearson , "In my fifty-three years of acting, I never remember a greater triumph than [that] first night.

Wilde's professional success was mirrored by an escalation in his feud with Queensberry. Queensberry had planned to insult Wilde publicly by throwing a bouquet of rotting vegetables onto the stage; Wilde was tipped off and had Queensberry barred from entering the theatre.

On 18 February , the Marquess left his calling card at Wilde's club, the Albemarle , inscribed: "For Oscar Wilde, posing somdomite" [ sic ].

Queensberry was arrested for criminal libel ; a charge carrying a possible sentence of up to two years in prison.

Under the Libel Act , Queensberry could avoid conviction for libel only by demonstrating that his accusation was in fact true, and furthermore that there was some "public benefit" to having made the accusation openly.

The scene was witnessed by George Bernard Shaw who recalled it to Arthur Ransome a day or so before Ransome's trial for libelling Douglas in To Ransome it confirmed what he had said in his book on Wilde; that Douglas's rivalry for Wilde with Robbie Ross and his arguments with his father had resulted in Wilde's public disaster; as Wilde wrote in De Profundis.

Douglas lost his case. A team of private detectives had directed Queensberry's lawyers, led by Edward Carson QC , to the world of the Victorian underground.

Wilde's association with blackmailers and male prostitutes, cross-dressers and homosexual brothels was recorded, and various persons involved were interviewed, some being coerced to appear as witnesses since they too were accomplices to the crimes of which Wilde was accused.

The trial opened on 3 April before Justice Richard Henn Collins amid scenes of near hysteria both in the press and the public galleries.

The extent of the evidence massed against Wilde forced him to declare meekly, "I am the prosecutor in this case". He characterised the first as a "prose sonnet" and admitted that the "poetical language" might seem strange to the court but claimed its intent was innocent.

He claimed to regard the letters as works of art rather than something of which to be ashamed. Carson, a fellow Dubliner who had attended Trinity College, Dublin at the same time as Wilde, cross-examined Wilde on how he perceived the moral content of his works.

Wilde replied with characteristic wit and flippancy, claiming that works of art are not capable of being moral or immoral but only well or poorly made, and that only "brutes and illiterates", whose views on art "are incalculably stupid", would make such judgements about art.

Carson, a leading barrister, diverged from the normal practice of asking closed questions. Carson pressed Wilde on each topic from every angle, squeezing out nuances of meaning from Wilde's answers, removing them from their aesthetic context and portraying Wilde as evasive and decadent.

While Wilde won the most laughs from the court, Carson scored the most legal points. Playing on this, he returned to the topic throughout his cross-examination.

Carson then moved to the factual evidence and questioned Wilde about his friendships with younger, lower-class men. Wilde admitted being on a first-name basis and lavishing gifts upon them, but insisted that nothing untoward had occurred and that the men were merely good friends of his.

Carson repeatedly pointed out the unusual nature of these relationships and insinuated that the men were prostitutes. Wilde replied that he did not believe in social barriers, and simply enjoyed the society of young men.

Then Carson asked Wilde directly whether he had ever kissed a certain servant boy, Wilde responded, "Oh, dear no.

Wilde hesitated, then for the first time became flustered: "You sting me and insult me and try to unnerve me; and at times one says things flippantly when one ought to speak more seriously.

In his opening speech for the defence, Carson announced that he had located several male prostitutes who were to testify that they had had sex with Wilde.

On the advice of his lawyers, Wilde dropped the prosecution. Queensberry was found not guilty, as the court declared that his accusation that Wilde was "posing as a Somdomite [ sic ]" was justified, "true in substance and in fact".

After Wilde left the court, a warrant for his arrest was applied for on charges of sodomy and gross indecency. Robbie Ross found Wilde at the Cadogan Hotel, [] Pont Street , Knightsbridge , with Reginald Turner ; both men advised Wilde to go at once to Dover and try to get a boat to France; his mother advised him to stay and fight.

Wilde, lapsing into inaction, could only say, "The train has gone. It's too late. Events moved quickly and his prosecution opened on 26 April , before Mr Justice Charles.

Wilde pleaded not guilty. He had already begged Douglas to leave London for Paris, but Douglas complained bitterly, even wanting to give evidence; he was pressed to go and soon fled to the Hotel du Monde.

Fearing persecution, Ross and many others also left the United Kingdom during this time. Under cross examination Wilde was at first hesitant, then spoke eloquently:.

Charles Gill prosecuting : What is " the love that dare not speak its name "? Wilde: "The love that dare not speak its name" in this century is such a great affection of an elder for a younger man as there was between David and Jonathan, such as Plato made the very basis of his philosophy, and such as you find in the sonnets of Michelangelo and Shakespeare.

It is that deep spiritual affection that is as pure as it is perfect. It dictates and pervades great works of art, like those of Shakespeare and Michelangelo, and those two letters of mine, such as they are.

It is in this century misunderstood, so much misunderstood that it may be described as "the love that dare not speak its name", and on that account of it I am placed where I am now.

It is beautiful, it is fine, it is the noblest form of affection. There is nothing unnatural about it.

It is intellectual, and it repeatedly exists between an older and a younger man, when the older man has intellect, and the younger man has all the joy, hope and glamour of life before him.

That it should be so, the world does not understand. The world mocks at it, and sometimes puts one in the pillory for it.

This response was counter-productive in a legal sense as it only served to reinforce the charges of homosexual behaviour.

The trial ended with the jury unable to reach a verdict. Wilde's counsel, Sir Edward Clarke, was finally able to get a magistrate to allow Wilde and his friends to post bail.

The final trial was presided over by Mr Justice Wills. On 25 May Wilde and Alfred Taylor were convicted of gross indecency and sentenced to two years' hard labour.

May I say nothing, my Lord? He first entered Newgate Prison in London for processing, then was moved to Pentonville Prison , where the "hard labour" to which he had been sentenced consisted of many hours of walking a treadmill and picking oakum separating the fibres in scraps of old navy ropes , [] and where prisoners were allowed to read only the Bible and The Pilgrim's Progress.

A few months later he was moved to Wandsworth Prison in London. Inmates there also followed the regimen of "hard labour, hard fare and a hard bed", which wore harshly on Wilde's delicate health.

His right ear drum was ruptured in the fall, an injury that later contributed to his death. Richard B. The transfer itself was the lowest point of his incarceration, as a crowd jeered and spat at him on the railway platform.

About five months after Wilde arrived at Reading Gaol, Charles Thomas Wooldridge , a trooper in the Royal Horse Guards, was brought to Reading to await his trial for murdering his wife on 29 March ; on 17 June Wooldridge was sentenced to death and returned to Reading for his execution, which took place on Tuesday, 7 July — the first hanging at Reading in 18 years.

Wilde was not, at first, even allowed paper and pen but Haldane eventually succeeded in allowing access to books and writing materials.

Between January and March Wilde wrote a 50,word letter to Douglas. He was not allowed to send it, but was permitted to take it with him when released from prison.

His own estimation of himself was: one who "stood in symbolic relations to the art and culture of my age".

The second half of the letter traces Wilde's spiritual journey of redemption and fulfilment through his prison reading.

He realised that his ordeal had filled his soul with the fruit of experience, however bitter it tasted at the time.

I wanted to eat of the fruit of all the trees in the garden of the world And so, indeed, I went out, and so I lived.

My only mistake was that I confined myself so exclusively to the trees of what seemed to me the sun-lit side of the garden, and shunned the other side for its shadow and its gloom.

Wilde was released from prison on 19 May [] and sailed that evening for Dieppe, France. On his release, he gave the manuscript to Ross, who may or may not have carried out Wilde's instructions to send a copy to Douglas who later denied having received it.

The letter was partially published in as De Profundis ; its complete and correct publication first occurred in in The Letters of Oscar Wilde.

Though Wilde's health had suffered greatly from the harshness and diet of prison, he had a feeling of spiritual renewal.

He immediately wrote to the Society of Jesus requesting a six-month Catholic retreat; when the request was denied, Wilde wept. He spent his last three years impoverished and in exile.

His discussion of the dismissal of Warder Martin for giving biscuits to an anaemic child prisoner repeated the themes of the corruption and degeneration of punishment that he had earlier outlined in The Soul of Man under Socialism.

Wilde spent mid with Robert Ross in the seaside village of Berneval-le-Grand in northern France, where he wrote The Ballad of Reading Gaol , narrating the execution of Charles Thomas Wooldridge , who murdered his wife in a rage at her infidelity.

It moves from an objective story-telling to symbolic identification with the prisoners. Wilde juxtaposes the executed man and himself with the line "Yet each man kills the thing he loves".

Although Douglas had been the cause of his misfortunes, he and Wilde were reunited in August at Rouen. This meeting was disapproved of by the friends and families of both men.

Constance Wilde was already refusing to meet Wilde or allow him to see their sons, though she sent him money — three pounds a week.

During the latter part of , Wilde and Douglas lived together near Naples for a few months until they were separated by their families under the threat of cutting off all funds.

Pray do what you can" he wrote to his publisher. He wandered the boulevards alone and spent what little money he had on alcohol.

Soon Wilde was sufficiently confined to his hotel to joke, on one of his final trips outside, "My wallpaper and I are fighting a duel to the death.

One of us has got to go". Please come". By 25 November Wilde had developed meningitis , then called "cerebral meningitis".

Robbie Ross arrived on 29 November, sent for a priest, and Wilde was conditionally baptised into the Catholic Church by Fr Cuthbert Dunne, a Passionist priest from Dublin, [] [] Wilde having been baptised in the Church of Ireland and having moreover a recollection of Catholic baptism as a child, a fact later attested to by the minister of the sacrament, Fr Lawrence Fox.

As the voiture rolled through the dark streets that wintry night, the sad story of Oscar Wilde was in part repeated to me

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