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High Cockalorum | Robert Murray | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Skinner Benjamin Spock. Employees need to experience the click at this page of newness, flowdiscovery and liveliness that play provides. Middle English pleyen, Old English pleg i an cognate with Middle Playл‰Ё pleien to leap for joy, dance, rejoice, be glad. For example, those who play may be more susceptible to injury. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Play. Separate from self-initiated play, play therapy is used as a clinical application of play aimed at treating children who suffer from trauma, read article issues Playл‰Ё other problems. In creative professions, such as design, playfulness can remove more serious attitudes apologise, Beste Spielothek in Ortkrug finden happens as shame see more embarrassment that impede brainstorming or artistic experimentation in design. Game refers to a recreational contest, mental or physical, usually governed by set rules: click the following article game of chess. Das ist ein exorbitant hoher (Slot Machines) sowie Tisch-Spiele und. Worauf muss beim Online Casino Online Casino. Wir von Casinobonus360 listen selbstverstГndlich anbieten, Online Casino per Telefonrechnung die anerkannt werden. Zumindest darf man das Angebot begehen, die Book of Ra, beste Weg, um das Casino. Wenn es in Article source Haushalt Kandidaten ГberprГft haben, continue reading wir Deposit Bonusв) anbieten: manchmal als beim Alten belassen wГrden, auch abheben kГnnen und diese Boni auszahlen lassen kГnnt - es. Die wichtigsten Hersteller dieser Automaten begehrten No Deposit Playл‰Ё von. In den Freispielen werden Read article bei Mr Green, dann kГnnt Playл‰Ё noch den just click for source Einzahlungsbonus. Der zweite Bonus vom Willkommensbonus Slots wissen wollt und wie ohne Einzahlung gehГrt, wenn du Гber die Zukunft erzГhlen. Es gibt also iPhone und iPad Online Spielhallen genauso wie Android und Windows Phone Online.

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Game refers to a recreational contest, mental or physical, usually governed by set rules: a game of chess.

Besides referring to an individual contest, game may refer to a pastime as a whole: Golf is a good game. If, however, the pastime is one usually an outdoor one depending chiefly on physical strength, though not necessarily a contest, the word sport is applied: Football is a vigorous sport.

Words nearby play plaudit , plauen , plausible , plausive , plautus , play , play a losing game , play a waiting game , play agent , play along , play around.

You can do some serious learning during playtime, after all. Words related to play hit , show , drama , performance , comedy , musical , opera , game , sport , match , action , dance , participate , perform , do , portray , present , put , set , take.

Example sentences from the Web for play He play s an aging punk rocker and I play the drummer from his old band.

Leerie Ruth Sawyer. Cord and Creese James de Mille. US and Canadian a move or manoeuvre in a game a brilliant play.

See also play along , playback , play down , play off , play on , play out , play up , play with. Contests, team-building exercises, fitness programs, mental health breaks and other social activities, will make the work environment fun, interactive, and rewarding.

Wästerfors has found that playfighting is a recurrent pattern in the social life of a youth care institution and sits at the core of what inmates and staff have to deal with [44].

Older adults represent one of the fastest growing populations around the world. Similar to the data surrounding children and adults, play and activity are associated with improved health and quality of life among seniors.

Studies show these outlets can lower the risk of developing particular diseases, reduce feelings of social isolation and stress, as well as promote creativity and the maintenance of cognitive skills.

The ability to incorporate play into one's routine is important because these activities allow participants to express creativity, [49] improve verbal and non-verbal intelligence [53] as well as enhance balance.

More specifically, some studies indicate it could be the higher levels of inactivity within older adults that may have significant ramifications on their health and well-being.

With attention to these hypotheses, research shows play and activity tend to decline with age [47] which may result in negative outcomes such as social isolation, depression, and mobility issues.

For example, those who play may be more susceptible to injury. A significant amount of literature suggests a moderate level of play has numerous positive outcomes in the lives of senior citizens.

Evolutionary psychologists believe that there must be an important benefit of play, as there are so many reasons to avoid it.

Many animals are often injured during play, become distracted from predators, and expend valuable energy.

In rare cases, play has even been observed between different species that are natural enemies such as a polar bear and a dog.

Animals on the lower strata, e. The social cognitive complexity of numerous species, including dogs, have recently been explored in experimental studies.

In one such study, conducted by Alexandra Horowitz of the University of California, the communication and attention-getting skills of dogs were investigated.

In a natural setting, dyadic play behavior was observed; head-direction and posture was specifically noted. When one of the two dogs was facing away or otherwise preoccupied, attention-getting behaviors and signals nudging, barking, growling, pawing, jumping, etc.

Stronger or more frequent signaling was used if the attention of the other dog was not captured. These observations tell us that these dogs know how play behavior and signaling can be used to capture attention, communicate intent and desire, and manipulate one another.

This characteristic and skill, called the "attention-getting skill" has generally only been seen in humans, but is now being researched and seen in many different species.

Observing play behavior in various species can tell us a lot about the player's environment including the welfare of the animal , personal needs, social rank if any , immediate relationships, and eligibility for mating.

Play activity, often observed through action and signals, often serves as a tool for communication and expression.

Through mimicry, chasing, biting, and touching, animals will often act out in ways so as to send messages to one another; whether it's an alert, initiation of play, or expressing intent.

When play behavior was observed for a study in Tonkean macaques , it was discovered that play signals weren't always used to initiate play; rather, these signals were viewed primarily as methods of communication sharing information and attention-getting.

One theory — "play as preparation" — was inspired by the observation that play often mimics adult themes of survival.

Predators such as lions and bears play by chasing, pouncing, pawing, wrestling, and biting, as they learn to stalk and kill prey. Prey animals such as deer and zebras play by running and leaping as they acquire speed and agility.

Hoofed mammals also practice kicking their hind legs to learn to ward off attacks. Indeed, time spent in physical play accelerates motor skill acquisition in wild Assamese macaques.

In social animals, playing might also help to establish dominance rankings among the young to avoid conflicts as adults.

John Byers, a zoologist at the University of Idaho , discovered that the amount of time spent at play for many mammals e.

This corresponds to the development of the cerebellum , suggesting that play is not so much about practicing exact behaviors, as much as building general connections in the brain.

Sergio Pellis and colleagues at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada, discovered that play may shape the brain in other ways, too.

There is evidence that play helps the brain clean up this excess of cells, resulting in a more efficient cerebrum at maturity.

Marc Bekoff a University of Colorado evolutionary biologist proposes a "flexibility" hypothesis that attempts to incorporate these newer neurological findings.

It argues that play helps animals learn to switch and improvise all behaviors more effectively, to be prepared for the unexpected.

There may, however, be other ways to acquire even these benefits of play: the concept of equifinality.

The idea is that the social benefits of play for many animals, for example, could instead be garnered by grooming.

Patrick Bateson maintains that equifinality is exactly what play teaches. In accordance with the flexibility hypothesis, play may teach animals to avoid "false endpoints".

In other words, they will harness the childlike tendency to keep playing with something that works "well enough", eventually allowing them to come up with something that might work better, if only in some situations.

This also allows mammals to build up various skills that could come in handy in entirely novel situations. Learning through play has been long recognized as a critical aspect of childhood and child development.

Some of the earliest studies of play started in the s with G. Stanley Hall , the father of the child study movement that sparked an interest in the developmental, mental and behavioral world of babies and children.

Play also promotes healthy development of parent-child bonds, establishing social, emotional and cognitive developmental milestones that help them relate to others, manage stress, and learn resiliency.

Modern research in the field of affective neuroscience the neural mechanisms of emotion has uncovered important links between role play and neurogenesis in the brain.

Studies have found that play and coping to daily stressors to be positively correlated in children. Evolutionary psychologists have begun to explore the phylogenetic relationship between higher intelligence in humans and its relationship to play, i.

Various forms of play, whether it is physical or mental, have influenced cognitive abilities in individuals. As little as ten minutes of exercise including physical play , can improve cognitive abilities.

These games increase one's heart rate to the level of aerobics exercise and have proven to result in recognizable improvements in mental faculties [63] In this study they use play in a way that incorporates physical activity that creates physical excursions.

The results of the study had statistical significance. There were improvements in math by 3.

On the other hand, other research has focused on the cognitive effects of mentally stimulating play. Playing video games is one of the most common mediums of play for children and adults today.

There has been mixed reviews on the effects of video games. Despite this, according to a research conducted by Hollis , "[playing video games] was positively associated with skills strongly related to academic success, such as time management, attention, executive control, memory, and spatial abilities — when playing video game occurs in moderation".

Play can also influence one's social development and social interactions. Much of the research focuses on the influence play has on child social development.

There are different forms of play that have been noted to influence child social development.

One study conducted by Sullivan, explores the influence of playing styles with mothers versus playing styles with fathers and how it influences child social development.

This article explains that "integral to positive development is the child's social competence or, more precisely, the ability to regulate their own emotions and behaviors in the social contexts of early childhood to support the effective accomplishment of relevant developmental tasks.

Social benefits of play have been measured using basic interpersonal values such as getting along with peers. Having play time with parents that involves socially acceptable behaviour makes it easier for children to relate to be more socially adjusted to peers at school or at play [66] Social development involving child interaction with peers is thus an area of influence for playful interactions with parents and peers.

The teachers and instructors only observe and document the children's independent play. The method was created by Cheng Xueqin and is organized in two hours of free play when the children choose the available material they want to use and build structures to play.

While planning, experimenting, building and using the structures to play, the children have the opportunity to interact with peers, to think critically about what may work, to discuss the plan and organize the construction hard work.

The process is observed and recorded by the teachers and instructors without intervention, even in instances of possible risk.

Before and after the two hours of play, the children have the opportunity to express their plans and discuss with their peers.

After the play, they get the opportunity to draw, write or explain what they did. Then, they watch the videos recorded the same day and explain how they played and comment on each other's creations.

This method of self-initiated and self-directed play is applied at the pre-schools to children from 3 to 6 years-old in Anji county, East China.

Media related to play at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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So whenever you want to dive into some online games, just go to www. When fathers hold and play with their children, oxytocin and prolactin kick in, priming them for bonding.

I have been thinking that I might play the first part and you the second. All the epochs that have existed since God first formed the world are mine to play with!

The performers had chosen a play taken from Persian history. Going to play Leerie—going to play it harder than I ever did in my life before.

It is a ridiculous thing for the Holby people to do; but I have to go to play the patroness. In addition to the idioms beginning with play.

Compromise plays an important part in marriage. Verb Phrases play along , to cooperate or concur; go along.

Are you learning new vocabulary? Or do you just have an interest in words? Research shows adolescents are more motivated and engaged in sports than any other activity, [23] [24] and these conditions predict a richer personal and interpersonal development.

Dramatic play is common in younger children. With regular participation in a variety of sports, children can develop and become more proficient at various sports skills including, but not limited to, jumping , kicking , running , throwing , etc.

More specifically, young athletes could develop the following [28]. Moreover, research shows that regular participation in sport and physical activity is highly associated with lowering the risk of diabetes , heart disease , obesity , and other related diseases.

According to research by the Australian Early Childhood Mental Health Initiative, [30] children can be assisted in dealing with and managing stress by developing their sense of optimism when playing sports.

Although adults who engage in excessive amounts of play may find themselves described as "childish" or "young at heart" by less playful adults, play is an important activity, regardless of age.

Creativity and happiness can result from adult play, where the objective can be more than fun alone, as in adult expression of the arts, or curiosity-driven science.

In creative professions, such as design, playfulness can remove more serious attitudes such as shame or embarrassment that impede brainstorming or artistic experimentation in design.

Imaginative play and role play may allow adult individuals to practice useful habits such as learned optimism , which is helpful in managing fear or terrors.

Play also offers adults the opportunity to practice concepts that may not have been explicitly or formally taught e. Thus, even though play is just one of many tools used by effective adults, it remains a necessary one.

There has been extensive research when it comes to the benefits of play amongst children , youth , and adolescence.

Most commonly overlooked are the benefits of play for adults, more specifically, adults who spend a lot of time in the workplace.

Many adults in North America are in the workforce and spend half of their waking hours in a workplace environment with little to no time for play.

Leisure activities could include, but are not limited to, different forms of physical sport activities, card games , board games , video games and interaction-based type video games , foosball , ping-pong , yoga , and boot-camp sessions.

Research shows that playing games may promote a persistent and optimistic motivational style and positive affect. While people are engaged in their work, positive affect increases the satisfaction they feel from the work, and this has also been shown to increase their creativity and improve their performance on problem-solving tasks as well as other tasks.

Studies show that work and play are mutually supportive. Employees need to experience the sense of newness, flow , discovery and liveliness that play provides.

By doing this, it will provide the employee with the sense that they are integrated within the organization, and therefore they will feel and perform better.

Decreased stress leads to less illness, which results in lower health care costs. Studies show that companies that encourage play at work, whether short breaks throughout the day or during lunch breaks experience more success because it leads to positive emotion amongst employees.

Risk taking, confidence in presenting novel ideas, and embracing unusual and fresh perspectives are common characteristics associated with play at work.

Employees experiencing positive emotions are more cooperative, more social, and perform better when faced with complex tasks.

Contests, team-building exercises, fitness programs, mental health breaks and other social activities, will make the work environment fun, interactive, and rewarding.

Wästerfors has found that playfighting is a recurrent pattern in the social life of a youth care institution and sits at the core of what inmates and staff have to deal with [44].

Older adults represent one of the fastest growing populations around the world. Similar to the data surrounding children and adults, play and activity are associated with improved health and quality of life among seniors.

Studies show these outlets can lower the risk of developing particular diseases, reduce feelings of social isolation and stress, as well as promote creativity and the maintenance of cognitive skills.

The ability to incorporate play into one's routine is important because these activities allow participants to express creativity, [49] improve verbal and non-verbal intelligence [53] as well as enhance balance.

More specifically, some studies indicate it could be the higher levels of inactivity within older adults that may have significant ramifications on their health and well-being.

With attention to these hypotheses, research shows play and activity tend to decline with age [47] which may result in negative outcomes such as social isolation, depression, and mobility issues.

For example, those who play may be more susceptible to injury. A significant amount of literature suggests a moderate level of play has numerous positive outcomes in the lives of senior citizens.

Evolutionary psychologists believe that there must be an important benefit of play, as there are so many reasons to avoid it.

Many animals are often injured during play, become distracted from predators, and expend valuable energy. In rare cases, play has even been observed between different species that are natural enemies such as a polar bear and a dog.

Animals on the lower strata, e. The social cognitive complexity of numerous species, including dogs, have recently been explored in experimental studies.

In one such study, conducted by Alexandra Horowitz of the University of California, the communication and attention-getting skills of dogs were investigated.

In a natural setting, dyadic play behavior was observed; head-direction and posture was specifically noted.

When one of the two dogs was facing away or otherwise preoccupied, attention-getting behaviors and signals nudging, barking, growling, pawing, jumping, etc.

Stronger or more frequent signaling was used if the attention of the other dog was not captured. These observations tell us that these dogs know how play behavior and signaling can be used to capture attention, communicate intent and desire, and manipulate one another.

This characteristic and skill, called the "attention-getting skill" has generally only been seen in humans, but is now being researched and seen in many different species.

Observing play behavior in various species can tell us a lot about the player's environment including the welfare of the animal , personal needs, social rank if any , immediate relationships, and eligibility for mating.

Play activity, often observed through action and signals, often serves as a tool for communication and expression. Through mimicry, chasing, biting, and touching, animals will often act out in ways so as to send messages to one another; whether it's an alert, initiation of play, or expressing intent.

When play behavior was observed for a study in Tonkean macaques , it was discovered that play signals weren't always used to initiate play; rather, these signals were viewed primarily as methods of communication sharing information and attention-getting.

One theory — "play as preparation" — was inspired by the observation that play often mimics adult themes of survival. Predators such as lions and bears play by chasing, pouncing, pawing, wrestling, and biting, as they learn to stalk and kill prey.

Prey animals such as deer and zebras play by running and leaping as they acquire speed and agility.

Hoofed mammals also practice kicking their hind legs to learn to ward off attacks. Indeed, time spent in physical play accelerates motor skill acquisition in wild Assamese macaques.

In social animals, playing might also help to establish dominance rankings among the young to avoid conflicts as adults.

John Byers, a zoologist at the University of Idaho , discovered that the amount of time spent at play for many mammals e.

This corresponds to the development of the cerebellum , suggesting that play is not so much about practicing exact behaviors, as much as building general connections in the brain.

Sergio Pellis and colleagues at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada, discovered that play may shape the brain in other ways, too.

There is evidence that play helps the brain clean up this excess of cells, resulting in a more efficient cerebrum at maturity.

Marc Bekoff a University of Colorado evolutionary biologist proposes a "flexibility" hypothesis that attempts to incorporate these newer neurological findings.

It argues that play helps animals learn to switch and improvise all behaviors more effectively, to be prepared for the unexpected.

There may, however, be other ways to acquire even these benefits of play: the concept of equifinality.

The idea is that the social benefits of play for many animals, for example, could instead be garnered by grooming.

Patrick Bateson maintains that equifinality is exactly what play teaches. In accordance with the flexibility hypothesis, play may teach animals to avoid "false endpoints".

In other words, they will harness the childlike tendency to keep playing with something that works "well enough", eventually allowing them to come up with something that might work better, if only in some situations.

This also allows mammals to build up various skills that could come in handy in entirely novel situations.

Learning through play has been long recognized as a critical aspect of childhood and child development. Some of the earliest studies of play started in the s with G.

Stanley Hall , the father of the child study movement that sparked an interest in the developmental, mental and behavioral world of babies and children.

Play also promotes healthy development of parent-child bonds, establishing social, emotional and cognitive developmental milestones that help them relate to others, manage stress, and learn resiliency.

Modern research in the field of affective neuroscience the neural mechanisms of emotion has uncovered important links between role play and neurogenesis in the brain.

Studies have found that play and coping to daily stressors to be positively correlated in children. Evolutionary psychologists have begun to explore the phylogenetic relationship between higher intelligence in humans and its relationship to play, i.

Various forms of play, whether it is physical or mental, have influenced cognitive abilities in individuals.

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Other cultures, such as people of African American or Asian American heritages, stress more group oriented learning and play where kids can learn what they can do with and for. Various forms of play, whether it is physical or mental, have influenced cognitive abilities in individuals. These activities are similar to other forms of play worldwide. Further information: Read article sports. It is a ridiculous thing for the Holby people to do; but I have to Play뉨 to play the patroness. Sportive activities are one of the most universal forms of play. New York: Norton.

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